to Skymet (private weather forecaster) ,there’s unlikely to be a drought in
2019 as the El Nino — a climate phenomenon linked to poor monsoon in India — is
likely to peter out by the beginning of the season.
- Indian climatic conditions are shaped
by many factors; one of them is El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO).
- The El Nino-Southern Oscillation
(ENSO) is a recurring climate pattern involving changes in the temperature of
waters in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean.
- Phenomenon of warming of the ocean
surface, or above-average sea surface temperatures (SST), in the central and
eastern tropical Pacific Ocean is known as El Nino.
- The low-level surface winds, which
normally blow from east to west along the equator (“easterly winds”), instead
weaken or, in some cases, start blowing the other direction (from west to east
or “westerly winds”).
- This reversal of winds creates unusual
warming and low pressure near the Peruvian Coast, and causes heavy rainfall.
- Phenomenon of cooling of the ocean
surface or below-average Sea surface temperatures (SST), in the central and
eastern tropical Pacific Ocean is known as La Nina.
- The normal easterly winds along the
equator become even stronger.
- This situation causes heavy rainfall
(monsoon) on western Pacific areas.
of El-Nino and La-Nina on India’s climate
- For India, El Nino during winter
results in development of warm conditions.
- During summer, it leads to dry
conditions and deficient monsoon, leading to droughts and water scarcity.
- Whereas La-Nina brings rains and
stronger monsoon in India, it may cause flood like situation in coastal areas.
- El-Nino and La-Nina are complex
unpredictable phenomenon and Agriculture being the important occupation,
climatic changes due to these are grave for India.
- El Nino and La Nina are the extreme
phases of the ENSO cycle.